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Atlantis (Ancient Greek: Ἀτλαντὶς νῆσος, "island of Atlas") is a fictional island first mentioned in Plato's dialogues Timaeus and Critias, written in c. 360 BC. In Plato's story, Atlantis represents the antagonist naval power that, despite ruling many parts of Western Europe and Northern Africa, suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of “Ancient Athens”, the pseudo-historic embodiment of the Plato's ideal state (see The Republic).[1][2] The tale, one of many such stories in Plato's work,[3] serves as an allegory for a nation's fate due to hubris.Despite its minor importance in Plato's work, the Atlantis story had a considerable impact on literature ever since classical antiquity. The allegorical aspect of Atlantis was taken up inutopian works of several Renaissance writers, such as Bacon's New Atlantis and More's Utopia. On the other hand, 19th-century amateur scholars misinterpreted Plato's account as historical tradition, beginning with Donnelly's Atlantis: The Antediluvian World in 1882. Plato's vague indications on the time of the events—some 9,000 years ago[4]—and the supposed location of Atlantis—"beyond the Pillars of Hercules"—became a gateway for pseudoscientific speculation (see location hypotheses of Atlantis). As a theme, Atlantis inspires today's light fiction, from science fiction to comic books to films. Its name has become a byword for any and all supposed advanced prehistoric lost civilizations.While present-day philologists and historians unanimously accept the story's fictional character, there is still debate on its origins. Similarly to the story of Gyges, some scholars argue in favor of inspiration from older traditions, in particular Egyptian records of the Thera eruption, the Sea Peoples invasion, or the Trojan War.[5][6][7] Others reject this chain of tradition as implausible and insist that Plato designed the story from scratch,[8][9][10] drawing loose inspiration from contemporary events like the failed Athenian invasion of Sicily in 415–413 BC, or the destruction of Helike in 373 BC.[11]
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