Cevaplar

2012-10-22T19:20:12+03:00

He was born in 1881 (probably in the spring) in Salonica, then an Ottoman city, now in Greece. His father Ali Riza, a customs official turned lumber merchant, died when Mustafa was still a boy. His mother Zubeyde, a devout and strong-willed woman, raised him and his sister. First enrolled in a traditional religious school, he soon switched to a modern school. In 1893, he entered a military high school where his mathematics teacher gave him the second name Kemal (meaning perfection) in recognition of young Mustafa's superior achievement. He was thereafter known as Mustafa Kemal.

In 1905, Mustafa Kemal graduated from the War Academy in Istanbul with the rank of Staff Captain. Posted in Damascus, he started with several colleagues, a clandestine society called "Homeland and Freedom" to fight against the Sultan's despotism. In 1908 he helped the group of officers who toppled the Sultan. Mustafa Kemal's career flourished as he won his heroism in the far corners of the Ottoman Empire, including Albania and Tripoli. He also briefly served as a staff officer in Salonica and Istanbul and as a military attache in Sofia.

In 1915, when Dardanelles campaign was launched, Colonel Mustafa Kemal became a national hero by winning successive victories and finally repelling the invaders. Promoted to general in 1916, at age 35, he liberated two major provinces in eastern Turkey that year. In the next two years, he served as commander of several Ottoman armies in Palestine, Aleppo, and elsewhere, achieving another major victory by stopping the enemy advance at Aleppo.

On May 19, 1919, Mustafa Kemal Pasha landed in the Black Sea port of Samsun to start the War of Independence. In defiance of the Sultan's government, he rallied a liberation army in Anatolia and convened the Congress of Erzurum and Sivas which established the basis for the new national effort under his leadership. On April 23, 1920, the Grand National Assembly was inaugurated. Mustafa Kemal Pasha was elected to its Presidency.
Fighting on many fronts, he led his forces to victory against rebels and invading armies. Following the Turkish triumph at the two major battles at Inonu in Western Turkey, the Grand National Assembly conferred on Mustafa Kemal Pasha the title of Commander-in-Chief with the rank of Marshal. At the end of August 1922, the Turkish armies won their ultimate victory. Within a few weeks, the Turkish mainland was completely liberated, the armistice signed, and the rule of the Ottoman dynasty abolished.

In July 1923, the national government signed the Lausanne Treaty with Great Britain, France, Greece, Italy, and others. In mid-October, Ankara became the capital of the new Turkish State. On October 29, the Republic was proclaimed and Mustafa Kemal Pasha was unanimously elected President of the Republic.

Atatürk married Latife Usakligil in early 1923. The marriage ended in divorce in 1925.
The account of Atatürk's fifteen year Presidency is a saga of dramatic modernization. With indefatigable determination, he created a new political and legal system, abolished the Caliphate and made both government and education secular, gave equal rights to women, changed the alphabet and the attire, and advanced the arts and the sciences, agriculture and industry.

In 1934, when the surname law was adopted, the national parliament gave him the name "Atatürk" (Father of the Turks).

On November 10, 1938, following an illness of a few months, the national liberator and the Father of modern Turkey died. But his legacy to his people and to the world endures
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2012-10-22T19:23:51+03:00

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in 1881 in Salonica, Kocakasim District, Islâhhâne Street was born in a three-storey pink house. His father Ali Riza Efendi and mother was. His paternal grand father Hafiz Efendi XIV-XV. Konya and Aydin Yoruk centuries settled in Macedonia. Near Salonika Lagkadas His mother was the daughter of an Old Turkish family settled in the town. The militia officer, title deed clerk and lumber trader, Ali Riza Efendi, in 1871, married Lady Zübeyde. Four of Atatürk's five siblings died at an early age, only Makbule (Atadan) survived, and lived until 1956.
When it comes to the age of young education in Hafiz Mehmet Efendi's neighborhood school began, was his father's choice Şemsi Efendi School. During this time his father died (1888). Rap for a while and returned to Salonika finished his schooling after their stay next to his uncle's farm. Civil Rüştiyesi enrolled in Thessaloníki. A short time later entered the Military Middle School in 1893. This school math teacher Mustafa Bey, the name "John" I added. Finished Monastir Military Senior High School in the years 1896-1899, the Military School in İstanbul. In 1902 he graduated with the rank of lieutenant., Military Academy continued. Graduated on 11 January 1905 with the rank of captain. 5 in Damascus in between 1905-1907 He served under the command of the army. 1907 Kolağası (Senior Captain) was. Monastery III. Was appointed to the Army. Which entered Istanbul on 19 April 1909 he served as Chief of Staff of the Army. Sent to France in 1910. Attended the Picardie manuevers. In 1911 he started to work at the General Staff Office in İstanbul.
The war which started with the Italian attack on Tripoli in 1911, Mustafa Kemal and a group of friends took part in Tobruk and Derna. Won the Battle of Tobruk on 22 December 1911 against the Italians. 6 March 1912 he was appointed Commander of the Association.
The Balkan War started in October 1912, Mustafa Kemal joined the battle with units from Gallipoli. Didymoteicho and recapture of Edirne was a great service. In 1913, he was appointed military attache in Sofia. While in 1914 this task increased. The military attache ended in January 1915. In the meantime, I World War I, the Ottoman Empire was forced to go to war. Mustafa Kemal, 19 Division of Tekirdağ with the assignment to set up.
I started in 1914 World War II, the Allied forces Mustafa Kemal wrote an heroic epic "Çanakkale can!" Dedirtti. On 18 March 1915 the British and French navy tried to pass the Straits of Dardanelles with heavy losses, decided to send troops to the Gallipoli Peninsula. April 25th 1915, the enemy forces, Mustafa Kemal commanded the 19th Division Conkbayırı stopped. Mustafa Kemal was promoted to full colonel on that success. 6-7 August 1915, the British forces started attacking again. Suvla Suvla Group Commander Mustafa Kemal won the victories of August 9-10. This Kirectepe on 17 August, 21 August, II. Anafartalar victories followed. Battle of Canakkale Turkish nation who lost about 253 000 have succeeded in honor against the Allied forces. Mustafa Kemal's soldiers, "I order you to attack, I order to die!" changed the fate of the battles.
Mustafa Kemal took part in Edirne and Diyarbakır after the Çanakkale wars in 1916. 1 April 1916 was promoted to brigadier general. Mus and Bitlis were fighting Russian forces provided. After short duties in Damascus and Aleppo, came to Istanbul in 1917. Velihat Vahdeddin Effendi went to Germany visited the front. Sick after this trip. Treatment in Vienna and Carlsbad. Aleppo on 15 August 1918 7 Returned as the Commander of the Army. This made a successful defense against the British forces at the front. One day after the signing of the Armistice Armistice, on 31 October 1918 was appointed Commander of Lightning Group of Armies. This abolition of the army on November 13, 1918, the Ministry of War in Istanbul (the Ministry) started to work.
After the armistice the Allied forces started to take over the Ottoman armies, Mustafa Kemal 9 Inspector General of the Army arrived in Samsun on May 19, 1919. June 22, 1919 issued the Amasya Circular "the nation's determination and decision will restore the nation's independence" and Sivas Congress has called a meeting. 23 July to 7 August 1919 in Erzurum, 4 to 11 September 1919 of the Sivas Congress defining the path to be followed for collecting the liberation of the country. Met with great enthusiasm in Ankara on 27 December 1919. The opening of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey on 23 April 1920 an important step was taken towards the establishment of the Republic of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal was elected President of the Assembly and the Government of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, the laws necessary for the successful conclusion of the War of Independence began to accept applications.
May 15, 1919 during the occupation of Izmir by the Greek Turkish War of Independence started with the first bullet shot at the enemy. The Ottoman Empire signed the Treaty of Sèvres on August 10, 1920 sharing I. Against the victors of World War II, with the militia forces called Kuva-yi Milli. Turkey Grand National Assembly established the regular army, the Kuva-yi Milli - to conclude the war in victory by integrating the army.

 

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