Turkish War of Independence
During the summer and fall of 1919, with authorization from the Supreme Allied War Council, the Greeks occupied Adrianople (Edirne), Bursa, and Smyrna (Izmir), where a landing was effected under cover of an Allied flotilla that included United States warships. No Turkish opposition was offered, and the Greeks had soon moved as far as Usak, 175 kilometers inland from Izmir.

Military action between Turks and Greeks in Anatolia in 1920 was inconclusive, but the nationalist cause was strengthened the next year by a series of brilliant victories. Twice (in January and again in April) Ismet Pasha defeated the Greek army at Inönü, blocking its advance into the interior of Anatolia. In July, in the face of a third offensive, the Turkish forces fell back in good order to the Sakarya Nehri, eighty kilometers from Ankara, where Atatürk took personal command and decisively defeated the Greeks in a twenty day battle.

An improvement in Turkey’s diplomatic situation accompanied military success. Impressed by the viability of the nationalist forces, both France and Italy had withdrawn from Anatolia by October 1921. Treaties were signed that year with the Soviet Union, the first European power to recognize the nationalists, establishing the boundary between the two countries. In 1919 a war broke out between the Turkish nationalists and the newly proclaimed Armenian republic. Armenian resistance was broken by the summer of 1921, and the Kars region was occupied by the Turks. In 1922 the nationalists recognized the Soviet absorption of what remained of the Armenian state, and Armenian minority in Turkey went back to Armenia. iyi ödevler...