The achievements, personality, and personal life of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (May 19, 1881 a posteriori – November 10, 1938) born to Ali Rıza Efendi and Zübeyde Hanım have been the subject of numerous studies. According to the Turkish historian Kemal H. Karpat, Atatürk's recent bibliography included 7,010 different sources. Atatürk's personal life has its controversies, ranging from where he was born to his correct full name. The details of his marriage have always been a subject of debate. His religious beliefs were discussed in Turkish political life as recently as the Republic Protests during the Turkish presidential election, 2007.
The personality of Mustafa Kemal has been an important subject both for scholars and the general public. Much of substantial personal information about him comes from memoirs by his associates, who were at times his rivals, and friends. Some credible information originates from Ali Fuat Cebesoy, Kâzım Karabekir, Halide Edip Adıvar, Kılıç Ali, Falih Rıfkı Atay, Afet İnan, there is also secondary analysis by Lord Kinross, Sevket Sureyya Aydemir and recently Vamik D. Valkan, Norman Itzkowitz.